ABB review 1-2015 - english

ABB review 1-2015 - english1

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6 CONTENT Building better Technology to make buildings intelligent Constant IT advances, rapid urbanization, climate changes and the rise of alternative energy technologies are four major trends that are driving a furious development of building automation technology. While intelligent buildings and smart homes were until comparatively recently the stuff of science fiction, they are now a reality and are well-placed to offer the energy efficiency, comfort and security people seek ... ABB review 1 | 2015


8 CONTENT Energy Switching gears Moving to smart switchgear for primary and secondary substations Medium-voltage (MV) distribution systems are undergoing a revolution: Gone are the days when they merely distributed power of consistent quality from some far-off generator and performed basic switching and protection duties. Now, intermittent local generators, such as wind and solar sources ... ABB review 1 | 2015

9 Smoothing the peak Integrated optimization algorithms save heating costs Many industrial processes use large amounts of heat generated by electricity. This can be expensive, and even more so if significant ... Wind window management An effective user interface for wind farm operations Wind farm operations often involve remote interactions with off-site control rooms. This poses a challenge because every wind ...

















26 Innovation highlights PASS hybrid technology steps up ABB review 1 | 2015 For many, high-voltage equipment has always been divided between air-insulated switchgear (AIS) and the more compact, but more expensive, gas-insulated switchgear (GIS). This picture changed dramatically some 20 years ago when ABB introduced PASS (plug and switch system). PASS combines the best of the AIS and GIS worlds to create mixed technology switchgear (MTS). Even if basic equipment costs are higher than for AIS, MTS delivers a lower cost of ownership.










36 Information exploitation ABB review 4 | 2014


38 Information exploitation Handling this flood of data in an intelligent way holds the key to greater plant efficiency. New techniques developed by ABB that process plant information in innovative ways can have a major positive impact on service offerings. Immense quantities of data are becoming available in many industrial settings. Only when this data results in actions will efficiency gains be made. Data flow is the lifeblood of an industrial plant. Is this the picture of the future? Partly it is, but, to a large extent, intelligent devices in plants are already communicating with each other. For example, in a typical control loop, in which sensor data is analyzed in real time by the controller and then fed back to the actuator, all the devices involved are intelligent and all of them exchange information in some form or another. So is the future just about rearranging what already exists in a more productive way? Again, partly it is, but technologies now available allow information to be processed in new ways that can have a significant impact on service offerings. Firstly, storing massive amounts of data has become affordable due to cloud storage offerings from several major providers. ABB review 1 | 2015




42 Information exploitation 1 Many sources of data in the industrial environment can be accessed to help make efficiency improvements. Weather data Service data Log files Pricing information Other data sources (cloud storage) Enterprise-level information Operational data Event/data stream Historical, permanent cloud storage Transient, in-memory storage Batch analytics (strategic) Streaming analytics (tactical) Operational information A fleet is also understood to mean the set of all complete plants of a particular type inside one corporation; all the vessels in a shipping company; or all paper machines in a paper company. Homogeneous versus heterogeneous data So far, data analysis has mainly involved signal analysis of conventional numerical process data originating from sensors. Today, there are numerous other sources of data that are waiting to be tapped. For example, search engines are extensively used to find ABB review 1 | 2015


44 Information exploitation Edge versus cloud computing Another interesting challenge is to identify where the data analytics should take place. The previous discussion largely assumes that the relevant data will be stored centrally, eg, in the cloud. However, devices are becoming more intelligent so there is more computational power closer to where the data is generated. To perform the computing close to the source is sometimes called edge 5 or fog 6 computing. It is already the case that not all data is sent to a data historian. For example, when using a medium-voltage drive to control the roll speed in a rolling mill, only the speed and torque are collected at the control system level, while the current is typically only available inside the drive. With intelligent sensors and actuators, it may be that only information that has already been analyzed is available in the cloud storage. An important trade-off here, then, is to decide which signals to process locally and exactly what information to transmit to the central storage, since at the edge there is usually no historian and hence the local data may not be available for later analysis. ABB review 1 | 2015




48 Emulation to the rescue Emulation to the rescue ABB review 1 | 2015






54 Emulation to the rescue 2 Virtual-machine template with installed emulators emulator Soft emulator Virtual PC resources Emulation PC resources To tackle this complexity, ABB has developed the virtual emulator framework (VEF). The virtual emulator framework The VEF is able to plan and deploy entire emulation networks for the automation system in question with just a few mouse clicks. Since it uses virtualization to automatically create the emulation networks, the virtual hardware can also be automatically created and configured, according to the automation system and PCS topology. Integration of emulators into the VEF As a prerequisite for the automatic generation of emulation networks, the emulation tools need to be tightly integrated into the VEF. Conceptually, the VEF uses virtual machine (VM) infrastructure to integrate emulators and to automatically generate the virtual appliances and the virtual networks for the emulation. The emulators are installed on a VM template in the same way as on a physical PC ? 2. ABB review 1 | 2015






60 Emulation to the rescue By using virtualization, the configuration of the hardware interfaces required for the emulator instances also becomes unnecessary. Now, the configuration can be performed automatically in accordance with engineering data exported from the engineering tools. The prototype demonstrates the feasibility of implementing this solution for a complex PCS. Hence, the VEF is a scalable solution to efficiently configure and deploy heterogeneous emulation networks for process control systems. ABB review 1 | 2015


62 Building better ABB review 1 | 2015














76 A service tool grows up ABB review 1 | 2015




80 A service tool grows up 1 Installed customer ServicePorts by region Installed base North America India/ Middle East/ Africa Northern Europe South Asia Central Europe South America North Asia Mediterranean The beginning ServicePort started as a promising idea for making high-quality ABB expertise directly available to process industry companies in a way that was fast and flexible. While the first prototype was used to deliver advanced services to a customer in 2008, in 2011 the concept gelled into the robust design now known as ServicePort. As a service delivery platform, ServicePort makes it possible to quickly and consistently capture data from control systems and analyze the data so that the customer or ABB advanced services personnel can make sound recommendations about improvement actions. ABB review 1 | 2015


82 A service tool grows up 2 Installed customer ServicePorts by industry Installed base Pulp paper Oil, gas and Mining petrochemical minerals 4 3 1 1 Chemical Metals Marine Power water Textiles Food beverage There are significant reasons why the service has gained traction. As a remote-enabled service delivery platform, ServicePort allows customers and ABB experts to view, scan and track important key performance indicators (KPIs) that impact equipment and process performance. This gives engineers the ability to take actions to solve problems and improve performance. Customers and ABB personnel have local or remote access to clear, frequently updated views of KPIs. ABB review 1 | 2015






88 A service tool grows up Another customer, a large chemical plant in the United States, produces numerous chemicals for consumer products that must be accurately processed for quality, efficiency and safety. In this complex operation the control system must perform optimally, making it critical that system settings and parameters are configured according to industry best practices and standards. Since the chemicals could be problematic or even hazardous if not used as intended, it is essential that each is correctly processed and tracked. To maintain needed accuracy, control system settings must be monitored often and compared with ABB best practices and standards. Additionally, system software has to be continuously updated with new releases. The plant managers decided to take preventive actions to ensure that system configuration and parameters are accurately monitored by investing in ABB System 800xA Performance Services powered by ServicePort. Customer personnel immediately began using the channel daily to monitor system software, and were able to make more informed decisions relative to configuration changes. Plant managers use System 800xA Performance Service to ensure system software is continuously updated with the newest releases. The ABB service team provides remote and on-site services to help the customer maintain software updates. Customer and ABB personnel use ServicePort Explorer in the plant to view data and trends to address issues and can even view data off-site. ABB review 1 | 2015


90 An expanded role ABB review 1 | 2015






96 An expanded role The SAS is developed in the engineering phase. The simulator is sequentially updated with process parts that are ready for control and operator dialog testing and integration with the model. The control strategy is verified. Using the simulator for realistic testing reduces commissioning time and increases safety during the commissioning phase. At this point the testing continues after the real control system is shipped to site for commissioning. With the next phase the simulator is used for a wide range of realistic training purposes before plant startup to increase safety and reduce the number of unplanned shutdowns. Hazard and critical training can be repeatedly performed in a safe environment. Without the simulator option, this type of training is very expensive or not even possible. Training activities can include plant familiarization, operating and maintenance procedures, plant startup and shutdown, SAS operation, response on malfunction and emergency situations, as well as safety procedures. Training can be for either new operators or for operators in new process areas. The simulator can be used in a certification program for production operators or technicians within new process areas or production lines. Also the simulator can be used for recertification to assure that operators retain and improve their skills. ABB review 1 | 2015






102 Switching gears ABB review 1 | 2015






108 Switching gears Secondary substation automation products Two elements are essential to enable the smart grid at the secondary substation level: automation of the secondary substation switchgear itself and the ability to communicate with the remote SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) system. ABB has products that address these: gas-insulated SafeRing and SafePlus ring main units (RMUs) and UniSec air-insulated switchgear. 1 SafeRing GIS RMU for smart grids SafeRing and SafePlus RMU gas-insulated switchgear (GIS) is designed with flexibility and compactness in mind ? 1. Each consists of a completely sealed system with a stainless steel tank containing all the live parts. This virtually maintenance-free system ensures a high level of reliability and personnel safety. UniSec AIS is based on a highly flexible, modular concept that can be readily configured to meet the specific needs of each application ? 2. ABB review 1 | 2015




112 Switching gears 5 Nonavailability (SAIDI) of a network against number of MV substations equipped with remote control (RC) technology SAIDI (min/a) 0 20 40 60 80 100 MV substations with RC (%) GA effectiveness For a quick evaluation of the effectiveness of a particular GA solution, ABB uses an activity-based costing (ABC) calculation tool developed in cooperation with the National Technical University in Aachen, Germany. This allows calculation of, for example, the impact of a SafeRing installation and standard GA package on SAIDI ? 5. ABB review 1 | 2015




116 Smoothing the peak ABB review 1 | 2015




120 Smoothing the peak 2 Full-wave burst firing On Off On 3 Phase-angle control Regardless of which setup is actually used, one requirement is ubiquitous: good power quality. This can be achieved by using full-wave burst firing, ie, by either letting full sine waves pass or by completely blocking them to switch the device fully on or off ? 2. When doing power optimization, the DCT880 uses full-wave burst firing. Besides this mode, the DCT880 also offers other control methods like half-wave control, soft starts and soft downs as well as phase-angle control ? 3. ABB review 1 | 2015


122 Smoothing the peak 5 Energy consumption (relative to the sum of the power of all heaters) of an installation with 14 consumers without (left half of graph) and with (right half) power optimization. Power (%) One cycle Start of energy optimization Time Depending on the load type, each DCT880 can control up to three loads that are independent of each other. Many configurations are possible, such as several single-phase, delta, star, multi-tap, open delta, etc. If more than three loads are to be controlled, one (standard) DCT880 will act as master and will be responsible for the power optimization calculations. Any DCT880 can be made master by setting a software switch. However, there may be only one master per system ? 4. ABB review 1 | 2015








130 Wind window ABB review 1 | 2015










140 Caps unlocked Caps unlocked Reactive power is a major concern for both industries and utilities. It impacts energy costs and CO 2 emissions and causes equipment malfunction and failure as well as reducing equipment lifetime and adding to maintenance costs. ABB review 1 | 2015










150 Caps unlocked 7 Capacitor manufacturing 7a QCap capacitors 7b On the production line Self-healing technology A metallized dry capacitor is able to isolate a small localized dielectric breakdown through a self-healing process. Self-healing is a unique feature of capacitors with metallized dielectric. Moisture or dust trapped inside the device, or some other type of defect, can cause a local dielectric breakdown. The resulting short circuit between two electrodes will emit plasma, vaporizing the dielectric material and the surrounding metal and leave a hole. The breakdown area is thus isolated and the capacitor self healed ? 4. Besides preventing the breakdown from spreading, the self-healing process leads to the loss of a small part of the capacitance (typically 1 part per million). It also releases a small amount of gas. ABB review 1 | 2015


152 Caps unlocked The pressure threshold can be reached either by the long-term accumulation of gas released by self-healings (normal end of life) or by a high-impedance fault as described above. Two recordings of the pressure rise and current during a destruction test are shown in ? 6. The elements were previously intentionally damaged by applying a DC voltage that was ramped up until a fault current limited to 300 mA was reached. Full AC power was subsequently applied. The overpressure disconnection mechanism only works when the containing can is sealed, but this feature also has other advantages such as providing a barrier against electrode damage due to oxidation and moisture. ABB review 1 | 2015


154 ABB in brief ABB review 1 | 2015




158 ABB in brief Connecting the canals Venice is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, famous for its canals, majestic buildings ABB review 1 | 2015 and narrow winding streets. While proud to preserve its heritage, Venice is also a modern city. Residents and businesses now enjoy free Internet access.


160 ABB in brief Wind down the windows On April 8, 2014 Microsoft ceased support for their hugely successful Windows XP operating system. This ABB review 1 | 2015 means there will be no new security updates, no new patches and no active support. The effect of this is that XP will become insecure, unreliable and incompatible with most newly released IT hardware.




164 From the ASEA archives ABB review 1 | 2015









173 Layout and programming DAVILLA AG Zurich/Switzerland Disclaimer The information contained herein reflects the views of the authors and is for informational purposes only. Readers should not act upon the information contained herein without seeking professional advice. We make publications available with the understanding that the authors are not rendering technical or other professional advice or opinions on specific facts or matters and assume no liability whatsoever in connection with their use. The companies of the ABB Group do not make any warranty or guarantee, or promise, expressed or implied, concerning the content or accuracy of the views expressed herein. ISSN: 1013-3119

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