ABB review 4-2014 - english

ABB review 4-2014 - english1

2 CONTENT review Substations get smarter 6 Volt/var management 23 Microgrids 54 Energy storage 61 Energizing the digital grid 4 |14 The corporate technical journal ABB review 4 | 14 Energizing the digital grid Published by ABB Group R&D and Technology. Momentum. ABB review 4 | 2014

3 Editorial Dear Reader, Electricity is all around us. Whether we are at home or in the workplace, in a busy metropolis or in a remote outpost, electricity, whether directly or indirectly, enables almost everything we do. Electricity is in many respects an ideal means of transmitting and delivering energy, being controllable, safe, economic, efficient and relatively unobtrusive. Read more ... Picturebook.

4

5 Forwardlooking information Operating the grid closer to its limits by preempting problems Distribution Break free Outages can be reduced by handling faults in an intelligent way

6 CONTENT The balance of power Volt/var management improves grid efficiency Smarter distribution How to increase the capacity of distribution grids to host distributed generation ABB review 4 | 2014

7

8 CONTENT No grid is an island Communication technologies for smarter grids Innovation Entering a new epoch A brief history of the electric power supply ABB review 4 | 2014

9 Microgrids The mainstreaming of microgrids using ABB technologies Resource management An end-to-end architecture for energy storage in the grid

10 CONTENT Plugged in Analyzing the cost efficiency of emissions reduction with shore-to-ship power A new era ABB is working with the leading industry initiatives to help usher in a new industrial revolution ABB review 4 | 2014

11 Wheel appeal A robot expert on wheels offers remote support

12

13

14 EDITORIAL A balancing of generation and consumption can no longer rely purely on supply strictly following demand, but must be achieved by managing both supply and demand. This requires sophisticated monitoring, communication and control systems across generation, transmission, distribution, storage and consumption. This issue of ABB Review is dedicated to these developments, following how they affect different levels and components of the electrical network, from the long-distance transmission lines to local level developments such as microgrids, as well as the control and communication systems that will make the collaboration possible. ABB review 4 | 2014

15

16 Enabling digital substations ABB review 4 | 2014

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28 Forward-looking information ABB review 4 | 2014

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40 Forward-looking information An important function of the business analytics solution is to verify that incoming data is both correct and complete. It can then turn a massive amount of data into actionable information. E.ON smart grid control center A new generation of system support is being designed to help utilities manage their increasingly larger and more complex networks. The DSO makes it easier for the operators to follow and foresee changing network conditions. It allows the operators to better manage the increasing quantity of data being made available to them. In a pilot installation at E.ON Sweden, this application will be used in parallel with the SCADA system in the dispatch center to guide the operators, who control a distribution network that provides service to over one million customers. This application will be the first of its kind in the 50 to 130 kV sub-transmission network that connects the transmission network with the distribution network. The new system study has been named the E.ON smart grid control center (SGCC). ABB review 4 | 2014

41

42 Break free ABB review 4 | 2014

43

44 Break free To mitigate the effects of faults and outages, improve continuity and quality of electrical service, and increase the network energy efficiency while minimizing losses, it becomes necessary for network monitoring equipment to work in real time and intelligently. If a fault occurs at any point in an electrical distribution circuit, it is essential that the fault is recognized, located and isolated in the shortest possible time. Circuit breakers (CBs) are used to isolate the faulty section and the extent of this has to be minimized in order to reduce disruption to consumers. In parallel, power should be quickly restored to the maximum number of consumers possible by rerouting the power flow through unaffected areas. Apart from consumer inconvenience, these failures give rise to significant costs and negatively impact resource planning, efficiency and profitability for utilities. In addition, utilities now come under intense scrutiny from overseeing bodies, like public ombudsmen, who have the power to administer penalties and levy fines. Therefore, utilities are highly motivated to avoid outages. ABB review 4 | 2014

45

46 Break free CAIDI (customer average interruption duration index) is a reliability index arrived at by dividing SAIDI by SAIFI. To put these metrics in perspective: They are the basis of the decisions by some major utilities to budget several million dollars a year for fines arising from noncompliance. Proper management of faults and outages provides a way to improve these metrics and reduce the risk of incurring large fines. FDIR and logic selectivity In general, there are two approaches to tackling faults and outages to improve service continuity: ? Fault detection isolation and restoration (FDIR) ? Logic selectivity FDIR allows utilities to increase grid reliability mainly by decreasing the duration of outages for customers affected by unplanned incidents. Benefits of FDIR include improved customer service and increased revenues. FDIR reduces the cost of restoration as well as the risk of fines and lawsuits. ABB review 4 | 2014

47

48

49

50 Break free Level 3 adds to level 2 accurate current, voltage and energy measurement on the medium-voltage side: Power flows can be managed with proper instrumentation and IEDs, which is important when distributed generation is connected to the distribution grid. Level 4 is the most technically complete solution. Here, the circuit breaker and protection relay are essential in order to manage the logic selectivity and increase performance in topologies ranging from a simple radial topology up to a complex meshed solution. Level 4 adds to level 3 protection functions utilizing breakers on incoming and/or outgoing feeders. This level features products such as the REC615 ? 2. With the REC615, grid reliability can be enhanced as it can provide functionality ranging from basic, nondirectional overload protection all the way up to extended protection functionality with power quality analysis. Thus, it supports the protection of overhead line and cable feeders in isolated neutral, resistance-earthed, compensated and solidly earthed networks. In addition to the essential protection functionality, it can also handle applications where multiple objects are controlled, based on either traditional or sensor technol ogy. ABB review 4 | 2014

51

52

53

54

55

56 The balance of power ABB review 4 | 2014

57

58

59

60

61

62 The balance of power Additional business drivers include demand reduction, energy efficiency, enhanced asset utilization and better distribution situational awareness. Technical drivers today include improved computational power for handling large distribution models and investments by more utilities in advanced geographic information systems (GISs). These drivers, coupled with the availability of cost-effective sensors, intelligent devices and communications, and grid models, have led to the deployment of effective volt/var management systems. ABB volt/var control solutions ABB has three volt/var management systems that manage and control voltages and reactive power flow on the distribution grid. Volt/var management software (VVMS) VVMS is a scalable system for closed-loop voltage and var control. It continually samples loads and voltages along feeder circuits and, when appropriate, switches compensating devices such as capacitors, line voltage regulators and transformer load tap changers. VVMS can operate as a stand-alone volt/var control solution or it can be functionally integrated with supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) or distribution management systems (DMS). VVMS is interoperable with many different SCADA, DMS, control hardware and communications systems. This gives customers a short lead time, capital investment protection and freedom to use the most appropriate hardware and communications products. ABB review 4 | 2014

63

64 The balance of power This application mathematically optimizes the settings for each device using a GIS-derived model of the grid. The application uses switchable capacitor banks, line voltage regulators and the controllable taps of transformers as the optimization control variables. Model-based VVO will also enable distribution operators to accommodate new complexities, including increased renewable generation located at distribution voltage levels, more automated fault location and restoration switching schemes, increased system monitoring and asset management processes, and expansions in electric vehicle charging infrastructure. Supporting hardware and infrastructure ABB supplies a complete portfolio of support hardware and infrastructure for volt/var management. ABB review 4 | 2014

65

66 The balance of power 2 PS vacuum switches The PS vacuum switch is a solid-dielectric vacuum switch suitable for use in distribution systems up to 38 kV ungrounded (grounded: 66 kV) ? 2. The switch has been specifically designed and tested in accordance with ANSI C37.66 for heavy-duty operation in capacitor-switching applications with the harshest climatic conditions. ABB review 4 | 2014

67

68

69

70 The balance of power Using these building blocks, Tropos systems are used to construct the most resilient, scalable, high-performance and secure networks for utilities, municipalities, mining and industrial customers. Benefits Volt/var management helps utilities move from blind operation to feeder management with multiple measurement and control points, end-to-end instrumentation on the feeders, and closed-loop control for automated optimization. The increasing penetration of variable, renewable generation sources, and the increasing diversity and variability of loads, are creating fertile ground for volt/var management. Utilities are also running closer to their limits than ever before, making the ability to optimize within operating parameters extremely important. OG&E, a large American utility, for example, is at the forefront of implementing model-based VVO to combat these challenges. VVO enables OG&E to maximize the performance and reliability of their distribution systems while significantly reducing peak demand, minimizing power losses and lowering overall operating costs. ABB review 4 | 2014

71

72 Smarter distribution Smarter distribution ABB review 4 | 2014

73

74

75

76

77

78

79

80

81

82

83

84

85

86 Active Site ABB review 4 | 2014

87

88

89

90

91

92

93

94

95

96

97

98

99

100 No grid is an island No grid is an island ABB review 4 | 2014

101

102

103

104

105

106

107

108 No grid is an island When networks experience massive breakdowns, the communications network cannot afford to be part of that failure. With limited resources, and public safety often at risk, the network needs to be able to tell a utility where to send staff and what parts of the network are still operational, thereby keeping outages to a minimum and reducing costs while increasing safety. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has been looking in detail at the cost of a smart grid. 1 According to EPRI, a major part of a smart grid investment will be in the communications infrastructure, which could also lead to substantial cost savings. To illustrate this point, the Philadelphia utility, PECO, avoided 7,500 engineer visits in 2005 alone thanks to smart grid communications, which verified if a customer- reported outage was genuine. The smart grid challenge As part of the smart grid concept, communication should no longer be limited to operations within a single company. To gain a view of the entire grid, a transmission system must talk to a distribution system, generators must be able to read demand from customer premises, and communication networks need to be seamlessly integrated so decisions can be based on the whole grid rather than parts of it. This integration runs counter to how the industry has evolved to date. Fragmentation has been created to drive competition, but for the smart grid, this fragmentation presents a greater challenge. ABB review 4 | 2014

109

110

111

112

113

114 Entering a new epoch ABB review 4 | 2014

115

116 Entering a new epoch The ongoing growth in importance and scope of the electrical grid has been accompanied (and enabled) by the development of the systems that assure its continuity and reliability. Despite fundamental transformations along the journey from early island networks to the continent-wide synchronized three-phase AC grids that emerged in the second half of the 20th century, the basic principles underlying these systems remained largely unchanged. However, recent developments are bringing new and fundamental changes. Electrical energy was first discovered in a DC form and its early applications in communications, transmission and lighting used low-voltage DC. It is thus no surprise that the first urban distribution networks were also DC. Even the first long-distance transmission of electricity (57 km between Miesbach and Munich in Germany, in 1882) used DC technology. These early efforts predated the emergence of three-phase AC technology, whose development was to start in Europe and which was to be advanced in the United States by Nikolas Tesla and George Westinghouse. ABB review 4 | 2014

117

118

119

120

121

122 Entering a new epoch 4 The main synchronous grids of Europe ENTSO-E (UCTE) ENTSO-E (NORDEL) ENTSO-E (UKTSOA) ENTSO-E (ATSOI) ENTSO-E (BALTSO) (explanations, see ? 5) Voltage regulation normally ends at the medium-voltage level. The connection between the medium- and low-voltage levels uses transformers with fixed ratios. In principle these two processes are separate. However in practice they are interrelated because of the use of plants for the local control of reactive power, and because transmission bottlenecks require power plants to be operated outside of the system-wide operating cost optimum. ABB review 4 | 2014

123

124

125

126

127

128 Entering a new epoch 8 Technical and commercial roles in an electricity market with full retail competition Generation Transmission Power stations Sales Transmission company Wholesale Spot market/PX System operator Balance responsible Distribution companies Network access management Distribution Financial market Energy service provider (ESP) Metering Aggregator Customer Ownership Money Energy Product Service Reasons included the wish to attract private investment into the energy supply, the desire to improve the quality of supply and the objective of reducing energy prices through competition. Liberalization required a separation of the electric power business and the operation of the network infrastructure. Although the networks were still treated as natural monopolies and therefore regulated by the state, the generation of electrical energy became a competitive market. However, different countries opted for different manifestations of this liberalization. ABB review 4 | 2014

129

130

131

132 Entering a new epoch With the large-scale installation of renewable generation, the ability to effect long-distance compensation of different primary energy sources is increasingly advantageous, for example in the form of connections from North Africa and the Middle East to Europe 1 . Such a very-long-distance transmission network is expected to be installed as an additional layer over the existing high-voltage grids as a so-called overlay network. With the introduction of its DC circuit breaker in 2012, ABB removed the last major technical hurdle to achieving this with HVDC technology 2 . Of all the changes ahead, distributed generation will probably have the most far-reaching effects. With a large portion of the generating capacity being connected at the distribution level, this new phenomenon must be integrated into the system management. Furthermore, in the case of solar energy, the pronounced infeed peaks call for congestion management on the distribution level. To achieve active coordination, up to three orders of magnitude of additional components will be needed than was the case in past systems. Information and communication technology will play a crucial role. Efficient information gathering and its consistent use for planning, operation and maintenance will be crucial for the economic operation of decentralized networks. ABB review 4 | 2014

133

134 Microgrids ABB review 4 | 2014

135

136

137

138 Microgrids 2 Key microgrid drivers per class and region Commercial and industrial Government institutions and campuses Community Remote villages Islands Remote mines and constructions Military Europe North America Latin America Asia Pacific Africa Electrification Environment Cost Reliable & secure power supply Microgrids interoperate with existing power systems and information systems and have the ability to feed power back to the grid to support its stable operation. ABB review 4 | 2014

139

140

141

142

143

144 Microgrids 6 Hierarchy of hybrid energy storage and its analogy with computer memory functions Frequency deviation (mHZ) Low-band frequency deviation Analogy with a PC/ PC memory hierarchy Degradation/capacity fading Cost per energy unit Lead acid Li-ion Frequency deviation (mHZ) 0 1 2 Days Mid-band frequency deviation 0 1 2 Hours High-band frequency deviation DRAM Frequency deviation (mHZ) Supercap 0 1 2 Hours L1/L2 cache Looking forward The microgrid market is rapidly developing, with commissions occurring around the world in a variety of application segments. Microgrids are shifting their focus from technology demonstration pilot projects to commercial projects driven by solid business cases. A recent Navigant Research report has identified over 400 microgrid projects in operation or under development globally. 1 ABB review 4 | 2014

145

146

147

148

149

150 Resource management ABB review 4 | 2014

151

152

153

154

155

156

157

158 Resource management Indeed, most technologies such as power electronics and control technologies are also widely used elsewhere in the grid today. Battery energy storage In 2003, ABB applied battery storage technology to create a spinning reserve for an electric authority in Alaska, in the United States. A power converter system solution, using nickel cadmium batteries, supplies power at 27 MW for 15 minutes and 46 MW for 5 minutes, which allows ample time for local generation to come online. In 2011, ABB partnered with a Swiss utility to commission the largest battery energy storage system of its kind in Switzerland. This 1 MW lithium-ion battery facility can absorb or discharge power for 15 minutes. It is integrated into the distribution network and is being used to evaluate performance in key areas such as balancing peak loads and intermittent power supply, and the viability of the solution for grid optimization. Pumped-hydro energy storage ABB has been developing technologies and providing solutions for the hydroelectric power industry for more than 125 years. In that time, ABB has supplied power and automation equipment for more than 300 hydroelectric power plants all over the world, from small installations of 1 or 2 MW to 10 GW giants. At a pumped-hydro storage plant in the Swiss Alps, for example, ABB is retro-fitting a variable speed drive (VSD) system based on the full converter concept ? 3. At 100 MW it is the largest VSD of its kind in the world. ABB review 4 | 2014

159

160

161

162 Plugged in ABB review 4 | 2014

163

164 Plugged in Only shore-to-ship power allows complete emissions reduction at ports by connecting to electricity from the grid, which is often cheaper and much cleaner to produce. ABB has been supplying shore-to-ship solutions since 2000, when it delivered the first-ever high-voltage shoreto-ship connection to the port of Gothenburg, Sweden. Since that first shore-to-ship connection, many more successful connections have followed. To spur further development of shore-to-ship power projects, some governments provide subsidies or regulative and fiscal incentives. Almost every project implemented worldwide has received a certain level of subsidy from either public authorities or supporting funds. In North America the development of shore-to-ship power projects fell to the cruise and container segments, enforced legislatively by the state of California in the United States and later financially supported by the US and Canadian governments. The direct trade route for container ships between East Asia and the west coast of the United States, where shore-to-ship power requirements are already in place, is driving new shore-to-ship power projects in Asia in the same segment. In Europe the majority of the projects is in the ro-ro/ro-pax/ferry 1 segment, which is driven more by business reasons than legislation. ABB review 4 | 2014

165

166

167

168

169

170

171

172 Plugged in 5 The Port of Ystad in Sweden utilizes shore-to-ship power to keep emissions down. The best environmental benefits Financial support is a well proven means of stimulating development of environment-oriented and capital-intense projects. With the financial support available to develop TEN-T infrastructure for ports, it is important to allocate funds to the most cost- effective projects. Shore-to-ship power is a well-established solution for complete emissions reduction from ships at port ? 5. ABB review 4 | 2014

173

174 A new era ABB review 4 | 2014

175

176

177

178

179

180

181

182

183

184 A new era As shown in ? 5, the green production network symbolizes an automation system that fulfills the industrial requirements on availability, reliability, sustainability and security. The yellow Industry 4.0 network enables new services and provides added value to the user. The production is not dependent on the Industry 4.0 network, therefore failures of the network will not interrupt production. In the first step of an implementation of the topology, assets, devices, production lines and factories are connected to the Industry 4.0 network with read-only access (yellow markers). Authenticated participants can read, for example, device IDs, diagnostic data, parameters or production data. This data will form the foundation of future Industry 4.0 value-creation processes. In a second step, write access will be introduced with an approval instance to avoid unintended effects on the running production. The data of the yellow Industry 4.0 network is collected in a private, secure storage system. Access to this data is controlled by the data owner, eg, the plant operator. Publication of this data to the Industry 4.0 services system is controlled by interfaces and permission systems. Added value can be created either by services within the private data system, or through third-party services within the Industry 4.0 services system. This integration topology addresses the industrial requirements of investment protection, system stability, controllability and data security issues. The German Industry 4.0 steering committee has published this topology under the Industry 4.0 umbrella 4 . ABB review 4 | 2014

185

186

187

188 Wheel appeal ABB review 4 | 2014

189

190

191

192

193

194 Wheel appeal The system uses a semi-automatic algorithm to synchronize the coordinate system of the camera with the coordinate system of the projector. Future releases will feature a synchronization that will be done automatically and implicitly for both users. To support the wireless functionality and mobility of the robot, it has a rechargeable battery with a two-hour runtime capacity. The outer shell of the robot has been designed for industrial environments. It has a protective anti-scratch plastic cover with dedicated holes for the projector, camera, speaker and microphone ? 3. It also has special openings for ventilation to protect the robot from possible overheating. The mobile platform has a metallic body with a load capacity of 20 kg and rubber-covered wheels for good traction. Special attention was paid to the startup time of the robot since every second of waiting could be costly. At the moment, the robot starts or restarts with a single press of a button and takes no more than a few seconds to be up and running and ready for a remote collaboration session. First impressions The prototype was evaluated in a power plant to get initial feedback on the concept and its applicability to industrial settings. The overall impression was that such a concept could indeed be offered by ABB as a service to its customers. They could use such a robot when they need assistance or troubleshooting guidance for ABB equipment or other service-related issues. ABB review 4 | 2014

195

196

197

198

199 Layout and programming DAVILLA AG Zurich/Switzerland www.davilla.com Disclaimer The information contained herein reflects the views of the authors and is for informational purposes only. Readers should not act upon the information contained herein without seeking professional advice. We make publications available with the understanding that the authors are not rendering technical or other professional advice or opinions on specific facts or matters and assume no liability whatsoever in connection with their use. The companies of the ABB Group do not make any warranty or guarantee, or promise, expressed or implied, concerning the content or accuracy of the views expressed herein. ISSN: 1013-3119 www.abb.com/abbreview

Flash Download
Diese Seite benötigt das Flash 10.1 Plugin von Adobe.
» zum Download

Bitte stellen Sie sicher dass Javascript in Ihrem Browser aktiviert und erlaubt ist.