ABB review 2-2014 - english

ABB review 2-2014 - english1

2 CONTENT review 100 years of ABB Review 7 40 years in robotics 24 60 years of HVDC 33 Boundaries of knowledge 68 A century of ABB Review 2 |14 The corporate technical journal ABB review 2 | 14 A century of ABB Review Published by ABB Group R&D and Technology. Momentum. ABB review 2 | 2014

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4 CONTENT ABB review 2 | 2014

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8 CONTENT Knowledge to power Pumping efficiency A 100 MW converter for the Grimsel 2 pumped storage plant Hydropower is one of the oldest forms of power generation and also one of the most flexible. Because water can be retained in a reservoir and released when needed, it is ideally suited for meeting demand fluctuations. ABB review 2 | 2014

9 Unit of power Cutting-edge motor design redefines power density Multitalented ACS800 power electronics can do more than rotate a motor

10 CONTENT Power is knowledge Hot spot A new infrared sensor measures temperature in generator circuit breakers At a higher level A medium-voltage-level UPS for complete power protection ABB review 2 | 2014

11 Boundaries of knowledge Knowledge of boundary conditions is crucial for reliable simulations Pushing the limits Turbine simulation for next-generation turbochargers

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14 EDITORIAL Editorial 100 years of ABB Review Claes Rytoft History often holds the key to understanding the present. Its study can at times humblingly reveal that ideas we erroneously classify as recent have been around for much longer than we imagine. On the other hand it can upliftingly remind us how quickly breakthroughs can totally transform large parts of the industry. 2014 is a year of several landmark anniversaries for ABB. As you have probably gathered from the cover of this edition, ABB Review is 100 years old this year. We are marking the anniversary by dedicating an entire section to the centenary (and are also planning other events during the course of 2014). ABB review 2 | 2014

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18 100 years of ABB Review ABB review 2 | 2014

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22 100 years of ABB Review Over the last 100 years, the pages of ABB Review have featured a staggering number of contributions on a broad range of subjects. Some articles covered the predecessors of products still manufactured by ABB. Many of the statements made in these articles are still surprisingly valid today. Other contributions reflect developments that were not pursued further by the company or that developed in a different way than expected. Besides documenting this progress, the archives also present other insights. 1934 1937 1931 1935 Nylon, invented by Wallace Carothers, is patented 1938 Opening of the Empire State Building in New York First night game in Major League Baseball made possible by electric lighting Chester Carlson invents a dry printing process called electrophotography, commonly called a Xerox ABB review 2 | 2014

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42 100 years of ABB Review Drying grass to make winter fodder for cattle? And that using electricity? ABB Review has no shortage of articles on unusual applications. The Brown Boveri Review, April/May 1941 What we today call electromobility is no new field for ABB. The Brown Boveri Review, January/February/March 1942 ABB review 2 | 2014

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46 100 years of ABB Review Installing power equipment in northern Canada sometimes called for unconventional methods. The Brown Boveri Review, July/August 1955 Radio equipment for the Parisian police. The Brown Boveri Review, January/February 1949 ABB review 2 | 2014

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60 Rise of the robot 6000 2000 IRB 90 IRB 6 Monitoring innovations Rise of the robot ABB review 2 | 2014

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82 60 years of HVDC ABB review 2 | 2014

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88 60 years of HVDC 2 Mercury-arc valve Steel anode Mercury vapor Mercury cathode Interest in DC conversion resurged when a new technology came onto the scene: the mercury-arc valve. 2 This valve is a sealed bulb filled with mercury vapor using steel anodes and a mercury cathode ? 2. Once an arc is initiated between anode and cathode, the current flowing in the arc generates heat and ionizes the mercury vapor. At the interface of the arc and the mercury, the bombardment by ions causes electrons to be released. The steel can absorb electrons but does not release significant quantities at the operating temperature. Current can thus flow from the steel to the mercury but not in the reverse direction. ABB review 2 | 2014

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106 Pumping efficiency ABB review 2 | 2014

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120 Unit of power ABB review 2 | 2014

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122 Unit of power All rotating electrical machines generate heat as a result of the electrical and mechanical losses inside the motor. Losses are particularly high during starting and they also increase with increased loading. Cooling is, therefore, necessary to continuously transfer the heat to a cooling medium, such as the surrounding air. So important is cooling to motors that different cooling methods for rotating machines are officially defined in an IEC standard. There has always been a demand from industry for motors to become more compact and, at the same time, deliver more power. This throws down the challenge to produce a motor design that is mechanically smaller and more powerful but that stays cool. This is not all: the motor should also operate within mechanical vibration constraints, be service-friendly and be flexible so as to simplify commissioning. The new ABB motors described here are the result of a long period of research and development in which various parameters have been optimized to ensure that the motors will become the new benchmark for the industry, while still complementing the existing range. Not only do they produce more power per kilogram than previous designs, but they also have longer service intervals and more flexibility. ABB review 2 | 2014

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132 Multitalented ABB review 2 | 2014

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140 Multitalented Other applications built on DTC modulation The control of the two applications presented above is founded on the ACS800 software platform. In each case, the direct torque control (DTC) modulation principle is used. DTC is an AC motor control method developed by ABB in which all switch changes, for every control cycle, are based directly on the electromagnetic state of the motor; there is no separate voltage- and frequency-controlled pulse-width modulator. The first major successful commercial DTC products were developed by ABB in the 1980s for traction applications. DTC relies heavily on digital signal processing and dedicated electronics. The use of DTC allows special converter applications based on ACS800 motor control to be developed. This development work is carried out by a dedicated ABB software team. Benefits of scale All the applications mentioned profit from commonality. Each application has its specific software, but the IGBT converter module hardware remains the same. This brings benefits of scale to prices, volumes, reliability, spare parts and global aftersales service. Size The modular construction of the ACS800 product series is extremely beneficial and flexible when building complicated converter applications. The smallest reasonable module size in PQ and islanding applications is 150 kVA in an R7i frame and the largest module size is 500 kVA. ABB review 2 | 2014

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142 Hot spot ABB review 2 | 2014

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154 Hot spot All tests were successfully passed and the sensor system thus qualified for operation in a GCB. Productization phase The involvement of a potential manufacturer early on in the project resulted in a very mature technology demonstrator. Only a few changes were necessary for full productization. Productization was done in parallel to the adaptation work on the sensor itself. This covered the sensor assembly, cable harness design, mechanical integration of the sensors into the GCB enclosure, routing of cables, and a GMS600 monitoring software update to log, store and present the temperature data to the customer for nine sensors (three per phase). The supply chain was put in place in cooperation with the manufacturer, who also preassembles sensors and cables on a mounting rack to speed installation in the GCB. Extended service Cost-efficiency can be significantly improved by intelligent service approaches, such as predictive maintenance. However, efficient, adaptive and sustainable predictive maintenance and equipment life strategies are highly dependent on meaningful sensor signals from the field. ABB review 2 | 2014

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156 At a higher level ABB review 2 | 2014

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160 At a higher level 2 An MV UPS can be configured to protect an entire data center load or just the mechanical loads. LV switchgear LV switchgear LV DIST LV DIST Mechanical load and cooling LV DIST I Load LV DIST II Mechanical load and cooling In a data center this could include the mechanical loads ? 2. Installing the UPS protection at the MV level provides the most energy efficient configuration as the lower currents at this voltage result in lower losses. The first release is rated up to 6.6 kV and 6 MVA with even larger 15 kV class products to follow (including 11 kV and 13.2 kV options), rated at even higher MVA. ABB review 2 | 2014

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162 At a higher level Lower cost Up-front cost is always important in equipment selection, but the total cost of ownership is usually the most important cost criterion for the customer. The unparalleled efficiency of the PCS100 MV UPS, its low maintenance costs and small system footprint minimize ownership costs. The fact that the energy storage and converter is at the LV level also greatly simplifies maintenance and reduces system cost. Finally, the PCS100 MV UPS has many retrofit possibilities that allow custom designs that suit applications in plants that are currently unprotected or where traditional rotary UPS solutions require replacement. Storage options Because the energy storage is kept at LV levels, a wide range of energy storage options is available. The most common are ultracapacitors, lithium-ion batteries and high-discharge sealed lead-acid batteries. It is expected that ultracapacitors will be widely used in industrial applications due to their long life and compact size. For longer-autonomy applications, lithium-ion batteries similar to those used in electric cars offer reduced footprint and increased life when compared with the lowest-cost lead-acid solutions. Lithium-ion batteries have excellent cycle life characteristics and this opens up opportunities for smart grid support features, such as load shedding, to be added. ABB review 2 | 2014

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164 Boundaries of knowledge Boundaries of knowledge ABB review 2 | 2014

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172 Boundaries of knowledge 2 Climate chamber simulation of GCB overheating: IR temperature sensor response 2a Insulator without intrinsic, but with injected, charge carriers (here positive holes) from the two attached electrode contacts. (Blue: equilibrium potential.) Field calculations in DC insulation, however, are considerably more complex because space charges can build up inside the material. By this, sometimes very slow, process, the field distribution may change significantly over time. An illustrative example of the coupled interaction of the boundary with the bulk is the formation of a space-charge-limited current (SCLC): Consider a material that is initially bare of any charge carriers and with a metal contact on each side ? 2. Even without an applied voltage, charge carriers (positive holes, say, for simplicity) will diffuse from the electrodes into the insulator. ABB review 2 | 2014

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178 Boundaries of knowledge Reliable simulation For meaningful numerical simulations, bulk models have to be complemented with appropriate boundary conditions. Boundaries often have a substantial effect on the result even though they only occupy a small part of the whole system. Furthermore, the variety of under lying physical processes that need to be taken into account in boundaries is much richer than in the bulk, whose equations often follow from simplifying conservation laws. It is wise, when validating simulation results, to scrutinize the boundary conditions used, for two reasons: First, due to their large effect, it is sometimes easy to produce the desired results by tuning boundary condition parameters. Second, the physics behind boundary conditions is often very complex and can be treacherous. Choosing a good boundary condition is not an easy task and requires a deep insight into the underlying physics, but the effort pays off by delivering much more reliable simulation results. Last but not least, an understanding of the governing boundary physics can be an important source of technical innovation. ABB review 2 | 2014

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180 Pushing the limits ABB review 2 | 2014

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188 Pushing the limits 5 The turbine stage on a test bench The stationary nozzle ring and rotating turbine wheel of the computational domain are coupled by a so-called frozen-rotor domain interface model. This interface model is an efficient algorithm for computing a steady-state CFD solution for stationary and rotating parts. The CFD model and setup above is based on a widely-adopted industrial CFD platform, the accuracy of which is already verified. The computational domain typically consists of around 20 million cells and nodes. The large-scale simulations are carried out on an ABB high-performance computing (HPC) cluster so that the simulations of various components in different operating and test conditions can be conducted within a few weeks. ABB review 2 | 2014

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190 Pushing the limits 6 Comparison of selected characteristic quantities from test measurements (blue) and CFD simulation (grey) Turbine work (kJ/kg) 220 1,600 1 2 3 4 Test configuration Turbine power (kW) 1,200 Test configuration Turbine efficiency (%) Test configuration Here: Turbine mass flow rate (kg/s) Test configuration In general, there was very good agreement between the test measurements and the CFD simulations of the turbine-stage characteristic quantities ? 6. Because the CFD simulations are verified and validated against test measurements for a number of configurations, good insight into the flow conditions in the turbine stage from the inlet flange to the outlet flange can be gained ? 7. ABB review 2 | 2014

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195 Layout and programming DAVILLA AG Zurich/Switzerland www.davilla.com Disclaimer The information contained herein reflects the views of the authors and is for informational purposes only. Readers should not act upon the information contained herein without seeking professional advice. We make publications available with the understanding that the authors are not rendering technical or other professional advice or opinions on specific facts or matters and assume no liability whatsoever in connection with their use. The companies of the ABB Group do not make any warranty or guarantee, or promise, expressed or implied, concerning the content or accuracy of the views expressed herein. ISSN: 1013-3119 www.abb.com/abbreview

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